Publications

See also invited department colloquia, and talks at meetings and simposia

Books on Elementary Particles

1. The Nature of the Elementary Particle,  Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978
2. The Enigmatic Electron, Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 1992
3.

4.

The Power of Alpha, World Scientific, Singapore, 2007

The Enigmatic Electron: A Doorway to Particle Masses, 2nd edition, El Mac Books, Santa Cruz, 2013

Annotated Elementary Particles bibliography

1. Elementary Particle States, UCRL-71842 (Rev.) Part I, Aug. 8 (1969) (unpublished)This paper introduced the idea that quark binding energies are very small (~1%), and it identified the muon mass and pion mass as fundamental light-quark building blocks. The necessity for having a neutral muon mass quantum  µ = 105 MeV was pointed out. (With the subsequent development, a few months later, of the relativistic equations for a spinning sphere, the neutral muon mass was later identified as the spin 1/2 form of the neutral spin 0 mass quantum M = 70 MeV.)
2. Meson and Baryon Resonances, UCRL-71842 (Rev.) Part II, Aug. 8 (1969) (unpublished)This paper introduced the idea that baryons and mesons occur in nuclear-physics-type rotational bands, with an l(l+1) splitting of the levels. The meson rotational bands that were identified in this 1969 paper differ substantially from later (1978) assignments, but the baryon rotational bands are very similar. (After the discovery of the high-mass b-quark states, further work, as published in Ref. 42, led to the abandonment of the general concept of rotational bands in these particles.)The ideas discussed in Refs. 1 and 2 are documented in the following A. P. S. abstracts:
3. A Nuclear Physics Approach to Elementary Particle Structure, Bull. American Physical Society 14, 1178 (1969)
4. Elementary Particle Structure from the Viewpoint of Nuclear Physics, Bull. American Physical Society 14, 1206 (1969)
5. Classical Models for Elementary Particles, UCRL-72128, Nov. 5 and 14 (1969) (unpublished)This report contains the equations for a relativistically spinning sphere, which are applied to the calculation of the spin angular momentum and magnetic moment of the muon and electron. In particular, the spinless 70 MeV mass quantum M is related to the spinning 105 MeV muon. This report was submitted for publication in December 1969, and was published in Lett. Nuovo Cimento 4, 211 (1970). The report UCRL-72187, Dec. 10 (1969), is a later version of this work, and UCRL-72287, Jan. 27 (1970) and UCRL-72288, Jan. 29 (1970) contain further extensions of these ideas.
6. Models for Particles, Nuovo Cimento Letters 4, 211-214 (1970)This paper contains the material described above in UCRL-72128.
7. Hyperon Spectroscopy, UCRL-72695 (Rev. I), Aug. 18 (1970) (unpublished)This report contains a summary of meson and baryon resonances as reproduced using a fundamental mass quantum M in both its spin 0 (71 MeV) and spin 1/2 (~106 MeV) configurations. The assumed binding energies are small (< 5%).
8. A Model for Elementary Particle States, UCRL-72646, Aug. 14 (1970) (unpublished)This report is a comprehensive treatment of the meson and baryon resonances that were summarized in UCRL-72645.
9. Nucleon and Hyperon Structure, Nuovo Cimento Letters 4, 1043-1049 (1970); Erratum, NCL 1, 307 (1971)This paper contains light-quark systematics for the baryon resonances, including S-state energy level diagrams and baryon rotational bands.
10. Meson and Kaon Structure, Nuovo Cimento Letters 4, 1249-1258 (1970)This paper contains light-quark systematics for the meson resonances, including S-state energy level diagrams, and it has an updated method for sorting meson resonances into rotational bands.
11. Extension of Kemmer-Symmetric Coupling to Meson Decays,  Nuovo Cimento Letters 4, 1309-1315 (1970)This paper discusses Kemmer symmetric coupling as applied to meson decays, and it contains the first published tabulation (Table V) of elementary particle lifetimes scaled in powers of a .
12. Invitation to the Coral Gables Conference, January 20 – 22 (1971)
13. Hadron Spectroscopy, Lectures from the Coral Gables Conference on Fundamental Interactions at High Energy, January 20 – 22, 1971,M. Dal Cin, G. J. Iverson, and A. Perlmutter, editors, Gordon and Breach, publishers, New York (1971), Vol. 3, Invited Papers, pages 75 – 154.This paper on “Hadron Spectroscopy” was written by the present author in connection with his invitation to participate in this closed conference on problems in high energy physics. T able XI on page 119 of this article displays the a -spaced elementary particle lifetime systematics. Page 96 contains the following statement: “In both the mesons and baryons, there seem to be two types of resonant structure, one that occurs right on the mass shell (a resonance), and one that has about a 3% binding energy (a bound state).” This observation was made prior to the appearance, in the Summer of 1971, of thepbar-n (1795) bound state with its 4% binding energy; that is, this observation was made at a time when no binding energy larger than 1% had ever been reported for any physical system.
14. On the Nature of Hadron Rotational Levels, Nuovo Cimento Letters 1, 427-436 (1971)This paper contains a discussion of the systematics of nuclear-physics-type rotational levels as applied to hadron excitations.
15. Evidence for Linear Meson Systematics with Baryon Number N = 2, Nuovo Cimento Letters 1, 437-441 (1971)This paper discusses possible L p dibaryon resonances that have baryon number B = 2.
16. The Fine-Structure Constant  as a Universal Scaling Factor, Nuovo Cimento Letters 1, 759-764 (1971)This paper describes the universal manner in which the fine structure constant alpha = e^2/hslash*c = 1/137 occurs as a scaling factor in particle masses, particle lifetimes, and stellar densities. The periodicity of metastable elementary particle lifetimes in powers of alpha is displayed, and a phenomenological relationship is deduced between the mass of the muon and the gravitational constant G. This is the first paper by the present author in which the work of Y. Nambu was encountered and included as a reference.
17. Rotation Invariance as a Fundamental Meson Symmetry, Nuovo Cimento Letters 2, 846-852 (1971)This paper discusses rotation invariance as applied to hadron rotational bands.
18. A Spectroscopy for Hadrons, Nuovo Cimento 8A, 235-297 (1972)This is essentially the same paper that was published in the Lectures from the Coral Gables Conference in 1971 [Ref. 13]. It contains a long four-page Note Added in Proof at the end which describes a number of recent experimental and theoretical developments.
19. Derivation of Baryon Resonances from Meson Data, Nuovo Cimento Letters 3, 197-205 (1972)This paper gives binding energy systematics and mass splittings for the light-quark basis states.
20. The pbar-n Bound State and the Mass of the Nucleon Quark, Nuovo Cimento Letters 5, 135-138 (1972)This paper sketches a relationship between the pbar-n bound state and the mass of the nucleon quark.
21. Angular Momentum Components of the Rho-Meson, Nuovo Cimento 18A, 169-187 (1973)This nineteen-page paper is devoted to a study of the rho meson. In particular, it explores the consequences of the idea that the rho is a spin J = 1 resonance only at the peak of the resonance, and it has J < 1 below the peak and J > 1 above the peak, as is of course required if the distribution of masses in the rho is correlated with a corresponding distribution of angular momentum values.
22. Experimental Systematics of Particle Lifetimes and Widths, Nuovo Cimento 20A, 471-507 (1974)This paper points out the significance of resonance widths as a key identification symbol for distinguishing between rotationless and rotational excitations, and it also discusses in detail the systematics of elementary particle lifetimes. When this paper was originally issued in preprint form, the CERN preprint librarian notified the author that he had received 65 requests for copies of the paper.
23. Light-quark hadron spectroscopy: experimental systematics and angular momentum systematics, Physical Review D9, 1259-1329 (1974)71 pages, denoted as Paper I.
24. Light-quark hadron spectroscopy: a geometric quark model for S-states,, Physical Review D10, 850-883 (1974) 34 pages, denoted as Paper II.These two papers are the published version of the report on the light-quark model that was initially submitted to The Physical Review in July 1971. Because of its great length, the original document was split into two parts. Even so, the first of these two papers is possibly the longest paper ever accepted for publication in The Physical Review, especially by a single author. These two papers contain a complete account of all the work done by the author on the light-quark model between the years 1969 and 1974. The work since that time has centered mainly on extensions in the area of nuclear physics, and on the incorporation of the subsequently-discovered New Particles into the systematics of the model.
25. The mass of the y (3095) as an N-Nbar resonance, Physical Review D12, 1492-1494 (1975)This paper identifies the J/y and y’ New Particles as NNbar excitations, and it shows that they are the n=5 and n=6 terms in the previously-published (333)n meson excitation series. It also mentions the fact that the lifetime of the J/y fits into the scaling in powers of a which was previously established on the basis of the lifetimes of the long-lived Old Particles.
26. Lifetimes of SU(3) groups and y particles as a scaling in powers of a, Physical Review D13, 574-590 (1976)This paper continues the study of elementary particle lifetimes by incorporating the y particles, and also by extending the span of lifetimes to include the short-lived “resonances” as well as the long-lived “particles”. A detailed discussion is given as to the validity or nonvalidity of applying phase space corrections to these elementary particle lifetimes.
27. Two related questions: Centrifugal barriers and the spin of the the Ω¯ , Physical Review D14, 1323-1334 (1976)This paper points out the fact that the centrifugal barrier concept used by elementary particle physicists to make decay rate connections is probably invalid. As a semi-related topic, the paper also di scusses the question of the spin of the Ω¯  hyperon.
28. Mass spectra of the new particles and the y ‘ radiative decays, Physical Review D14, 1463-1466 (1976)This paper extends the systematics of the new y particles within the framework of the light-quark model.
29. Interpretation of p-p Dibaryon Resonances at 2140, 2260 and 2430 MeV, Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1724-1728 (1979)This paper identifies a possible dibaryon rotational band.
30. p-p resonances: A link between nuclear and hadronic excitations, Phys. Rev. 20, 1616-1632 (1979)This paper discusses rotational systematics in nuclear and hadronic excitations.
31. Can 35 Pionic Mass Intervals among Related Resonances be Accidental?, Nuovo Cimento 58A, 159-192 (1980)This paper points out the large number of p @ 140 MeV mass intervals that are displayed within groups of related narrow-width particle states.
32. Do Dewan-Beran Relativistic Stresses Actually Exist?, Lett. Nuovo Cimento 30, 417-420 (1981)This is a discussion of the problem of relativistic stresses in rotating systems.
33. The Electromagnetic Scaling of Particle Lifetimes and Masses, Lett. Nuovo Cimento 31, 341-346 (1981)This paper reviews the scaling of elementary particle lifetimes in powers of a , and then extends the discussion to include the mass systematics of these same particles.
34. Do Spinless Constituent Quarks Exist?, Il Nuovo Cimento 69A, 241-294 (1982)This paper gives a comprehensive review of the mass systematics of the Standard Model quarks from a constituent-quark viewpoint, and it shows that they cannot by themselves reproduce the full spectrum of elementary particle states. However, when they are supplemented by a set of spinless 70 MeV mass quanta, then the particle masses can be accurately accounted for. Other properties such a magnetic moments are also addressed.
35. Generalization of the Postulates of Special Relativity, Lett. Nuovo Cimento 43, 49-54 (1985)This paper discusses the relativistic properties of particle-wave systems and gives Møller’s derivation of the de Broglie phase wave. It also describes computer calculations for the relativistic transformation properties of a relativistically spinning sphere.
36. A Dynamical Basis for the de Broglie Phase Wave, Lett. Nuovo Cimento 44, 697-704 (1985)This paper gives the relativistic equations for the acceleration of a spatial mass quantum by a moving electron, and it shows that in the perturbative limit where the excitation energy of the quantum is much less than that of the incident electron, the forward velocity of the excitation quantum is equal to the de Broglie phase velocity. This result holds for all excitation scattering angles.
37. Kinematic Production of the de Broglie Phase Wave, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 31, 844 (1986) (Washington, D. C. meeting)
38. Point-like Scattering by a Large Electron, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 32, 31 (1987) (San Francisco meeting)
39. The anomalous magnetic moment of the electron as a magnetic self-energy effect, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 32, 1022 (1987) (Arlington, VA meeting)
40. A Particle-Wave Steering Mechanism, Found. Phys. Lett. 1, 25-45 (1988)This paper gives a derivation of the special relativistic equations in the perturbative limit for the acceleration of a spatial excitation by a moving electron, and it discusses a possible steering mechanism associated with the de Broglie phase wave.
41. On the Interpretation of the Electron Anomalous Magnetic Moment, Found. Phys. Lett. 2, 577-589 (1989)This paper discusses the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron and shows that it is logically associated with the self-energy of the electron’s magnetic field. Calculations by Fermi and Rasetti, and by Born and Schrödinger, when extended to a Compton-sized current loop, demonstrate that the external magnetic field energy is of the same magnitude as the magnetic moment anomaly. This result is also indicated by the calculation of the self-inductance of a thin current loop.
42. An Elementary Particle Constituent-Quark Model, Nuovo Cimento 103 A, 983-1052 (1990)
43. Experimental Systematics of Particle Masses and Excitation Energies, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 35, 949 (1990) (Washington, D.C. meeting)
44. Experimental Anomalies in KeV Mott Scattering on Al and Cu, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 37, 905 (1992) (Washington, D.C. meeting)
45. KeV Channeling Effects in the Mott Scattering of Electrons and Positrons, Found. Phys. Lett. 5, 15-23 (1992)This paper discusses size effects in models of the electron. If the electron is truly Compton-sized, as seems mandated by its spectroscopic features, then there should be some experimental indications of this large size. One possible method for revealing this is to scattering electrons off a target that is smaller than the electron. There are some Mott scattering experiments on atomic nuclei that might reveal an extended charge structure in the electron if the scattering is carried out at appropriate energies. This paper described extensive computer calculations that were carried out to investigate these ideas.
46. The Equations of Motion of a ‘Hole’ State, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 39, 1153 (1994) (Washington, D. C. meeting)
47. Model Basis States for Photons and ‘Empty Waves’, Found. Phys. Lett. 8, 135-160 (1995)This paper discusses a key element that is required in order to quantitatively reproduce the spectroscopic properties of a photon: namely, the PH “particle plus hole” pair, which is pictured as an excitation of the “vacuum state”. These PH pairs are stable only when they are rotating at particular (de Broglie) frequencies. Single PH pairs, denoted as “zerons”, formally have zero linear and angular momentum (to first order). Matching and superimposed particle and antiparticle PH pairs carry the angular momentum  hof the photon, and they reproduce its main electromagnetic characteristics. The photon can be constructed as a synchronous ensemble of these basic model elements, which greatly lowers the mass requirements.
48. The Missing ‘P Field’ in Electromagnetism and Quantum Mechanics, Symposium in honour of Jean-Pierre Vigier (Toronto, 1995)Published in The Present Status of the Quantum Theory of Light, S. Jeffers, S. Roy, J-P. Vigier and G. Hunter (eds) (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 1997), pp. 17-35.This paper introduces the concept of polarized vacuum-state excitations, which serve to synchronize an ensemble of traveling PH pairs in a representation of a photon or an electromagnetic field.
49. The Relativistic Kinematics of the de Broglie Phase Wave, Symposium in honour of Jean-Pierre Vigier (Toronto, 1997)Published in Causality and Locality in Modern Physics, G. Hunter, S. Jeffers and J-P. Vigier (eds) (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 1998), pp. 359-364.This paper contains the same basic results as those published in Ref. 36.
50. Electron Generation of Leptons and Hadrons with Conjugate a -Quantized Lifetimes and Masses, Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 20, 719-798 (2005) and Addendum, A 20, 2893-2894 (2005)This is a review article that summarizes the experimental evidence for an a-dependence in the lifetimes and masses of the long-lived threshold-state elementary particles. It is the fore-runner for the book The Power of a.
51. What causes the electron to weigh?, What is the Electron? V. Simulik (ed) (Apeiron Press, Montreal, 2005), pp. 129-153.This chapter in the book discusses the concept of the mass of the electron.

Annotated quantum Hall bibliography

1. A unified quantum Hall close-packed composite boson (CPCB) model, Found. Phys. Lett. 13, 443-460 (2000)This paper discusses the use of multiple-wavelength Landau orbitals to close-pack the observed quantum Hall plateaus.
2. Quantum Hall Enigmas, Symposium in honour of Jean-Pierre Vigier (Berkeley, 2000) Published in Gravitation and Cosmology: From the Hubble Radius to the Planck Scale, R. Amoroso, G. Hunter, M. Kafatos and J-P. Vigier (eds) (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 2002), pp. 337-348.This paper discusses various aspects of theories that are currently used to account for the observed quantum Hall plateaus.
3. Quantum Hall Quantized Cyclotron Entrance Channels, Found. Phys. Lett. 17, 381-391 (2004)This paper is a detailed analysis of the factors that enter into the creation of a coherent quantum Hall plateau, including the necessity of conserving the overall angular momentum of the system during the wave function build-up process. Only a select set of Landau wave functions satisfy this requirement.
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